The Senate retains several powers for itself: it ratifies treaties by a two-thirds majority and confirms the appointment of the president by a majority of votes. House approval is also required for ratification of trade agreements and confirmation by the Vice President. · In turn, the president examines the judiciary through the appointing power, which can be used to change the direction of federal courts. Under Article II of the Constitution, the President is responsible for the execution and enforcement of laws created by Congress. Fifteen executive departments, each headed by an appointed member of the President`s Office, are responsible for the day-to-day administration of the federal government. They are joined by other executive agencies such as the CIA and the Environmental Protection Agency, whose heads are not part of the cabinet, but who are under the full authority of the president. The president also appoints the heads of more than 50 independent federal commissions, such as the Federal Reserve Board or the Securities and Exchange Commission, as well as federal judges, ambassadors, and other federal offices. The Office of the President (EOP) consists of the President`s immediate staff and institutions such as the Office of Management and Budget and the Office of the U.S. Trade Representative. The judiciary interprets the meaning of laws, applies laws to individual cases and decides whether laws violate the Constitution.

It consists of the Supreme Court and other federal courts. The House of Representatives has several powers vested exclusively in it, including the power to initiate tax laws, impeach federal officials, and elect the president in the event of a tie in the Electoral College. In the federal government, Article 1 of the United States Constitution establishes the legislature, which consists of Congress. Congress is responsible for creating laws, among other listed responsibilities. As a general rule, the doctrine of non-delegation prohibits Parliament from delegating its legislative functions. However, Congress can provide regulatory guidance to agencies if it provides them with an “understandable principle” on which to base their regulations. For more information on the legislature, see “Congress”. Both houses of Congress have broad investigative powers and can compel the presentation of evidence or testimony for any purpose they deem necessary.

Members of Congress spend a lot of time holding hearings and inquiries in committee. Refusal to cooperate with a congressional subpoena may result in a contempt of Congress indictment, which may result in jail time. State emergency management laws generally define how a governor can declare and end a state of emergency. In some cases, the response needed to a disaster is beyond the capacity of state and local governments. A state can ask the president to declare a major disaster. The declaration of a major disaster triggers a variety of federal programs, depending on the size of the disaster and the nature of the damage suffered. In turn, Congress enacted laws that specifically define how the law should be administered by the executive branch, while federal courts interpreted the laws in a way that Congress had not intended, leading to accusations of “judicial legislation.” Governors carry out their managerial and leadership functions and objectives with the support and support of heads of departments and agencies, many of whom may appoint them. The majority of governors also have the power to appoint judges to state courts, in most cases from a list of names submitted by a nominating committee.

To pass a law, both houses must pass the same version of a bill by a majority. Once this happens, the bill is submitted to the president, who can either sign it or oppose it with the veto power granted in the Constitution. The Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) is the federal agency responsible for national policies and programs that address America`s housing needs, improve and develop communities across the country, and enforce fair housing laws. The ministry plays an important role in supporting homeownership for low- and middle-income families through its mortgage insurance and rent subsidy programs. The Department administers federal financial support for higher education, oversees educational programs and civil rights laws that promote equal opportunity in student learning opportunities, collects data and sponsors research on U.S. schools to improve the quality of education, and works to complement state and local government efforts. parents and students. The U.S. Constitution divides the federal government into three branches to ensure that no individual or group has too much power: · The Supreme Court and other federal (judicial) courts can declare the president`s laws or actions unconstitutional in a process known as judicial review.